Gray scale and color duplex ultrasound showing reflex with the valsalva maneuver at the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ). Note the valve leaflets on the left image never oppose one another.
Iliac vein compression may cause pelvic venous congestion.
Renal vein stent placed for Nutracker Syndrome was placed too far into the IVC and causing pain. Stent was partially removed.
A faster technique for embolization gonadal veins using large diameter coils